What is open access?
Open Access (OA) is a simple idea, but it’s also one that challenges our established norms of scholarly communication. Peter Suber (2012), who directs the Harvard Open Access Project, defines OA as making “research literature available online without price barriers and without most permission barriers.” The growth of the Internet has provided scholars with the power to widely share their knowledge in digital format, freely available to all readers and at virtually no distribution cost. But this basic definition often raises deeper questions about the entire academic publishing enterprise, and its tangled relationships with authors, libraries, and readers.
Historians of education may be somewhat familiar with the idea of OA journals, including the excellent multilingual journals Historical Studies in Education/Revue d'histoire de l'éducation, and the recently-launched Espacio, Tiempo y Educación and Nordic Journal of Educational History, to name just a few. But what about OA books?
What do OA books look like?
They can include monographs, edited volumes, conference proceedings and other types of scholarly publications. Many are PDFs whose format mirrors their on-paper incarnations. Some can be downloaded while others may be viewed online only. Some incorporate multimedia and opportunities for commenting or annotation. One example of an OA book is the volume of essays we co-edited, entitled Writing History in the Digital Age, which is free to read in both a blog-like interactive WordPress version and in an online version of the final text hosted by its publisher, University of Michigan Press. Media-rich formats such as Scalar, which have so far been used to create media-rich companion and extension websites for traditional print monographs, offer fascinating opportunities for the creation of born-digital (that is, digitally-conceived and -produced) monograph-length OAs scholarly publications.
Interestingly, having a book published in OA form does not preclude its simultaneous publication in for-purchase forms, including print on paper or in some other proprietary electronic form such as Kindle. In other words: not all digital books are OA, and OA books may exist in additional forms that cost money to access.
Who publishes OA books?
Individuals and institutions, including major academic and for-profit publishers. Well-known publishers of OA works include The University of Michigan Press, Oxford UP, Cambridge UP, Palgrave Macmillan and Routledge. There are several catalogues of OA books published by academic publishers, including doabooks.org, oapen.org, and knowledgeunlatched.org. The history of education is not well represented in such catalogues - not yet, at least.
Does OA book publishing require different financial models?
Conventional book publishers rely primarily on post-production sales revenues to recover publication costs. This means that academic institutions typically pay twice for scholarship: once for the faculty salary, and a second time to purchase the book for the library.
OA publishers tend to rely on pre-production budgets, with support from academic libraries and/or authors’ fees, to pay expenses. For example, when we published Writing History with the University of Michigan Press, the Press had just moved into the University Library system, with a mission and budget to freely disseminate its digital culture book series on the public web, regardless of paperback book sales. Alternatively, Routledge’s OA books program requires the author to pay GBP 10,000 (plus tax) upon manuscript submission. In other words, OA makes a book free to readers, but is not free to produce.
Does OA mean that authors give up copyright?
Not necessarily. Many publishers accommodate OA publishing under Creative Commons licenses, which allow authors to retain copyright and distribute their own work freely with (or without) stipulations regarding attribution, commercial sales, and derivative products.
Does OA result in lower or higher-quality scholarship than conventional publishing?
The short answer is: it depends. Judgments about scholarly quality are separate from how works are distributed. OA books published by well-known academic publishers normally go through the same processes of peer review and editing as conventionally published works. However, even the old-fashioned proxies (with blind or quasi-blind peer review) were not necessarily reliable across the board.
Most importantly, OA publishing allows your work to reach more readers who can judge your work on its own merits, which allows for more engagement with your scholarship, more chances for feedback, review, and citation, and a furthering of scholarly conversation and of historiographical understanding in general.
Does OA publishing make more sense for some types of scholarship than others?
In general, we think OA is suitable for any author in search of readers. OA journal articles get read and get cited more often than traditional publications, and although OA book publication is relatively new, it’s reasonable to expect that the same will be true for books in general as well. Want people to read the study you spent years and plenty of blood, sweat, and tears on? Let them access it freely by publishing it OA.
Having said that, OA may be of particular benefit to authors of particular types of works, including
born-digital, multimedia, and non-linear works. This includes works moving beyond (improving upon!) the traditional book form to provide direct points of reader-author interaction (e.g. commenting or annotating), or incorporating video, sound or other media. OA digital publishing is also especially suitable for forms of non-linear historical analysis that publications on paper simply cannot accommodate.
those pursuing topics, studying periods, or using methods that for-profit academic publishing houses consider unmarketable: if publishers don’t think they can sell enough copies, they won’t publish it - no matter how high its quality. OA allows such works to reach readers.
expensive-to-publish works (e.g. long works, or those including many figures).
Do any mandates require scholars to produce OA works?
Researchers at some colleges and universities have voted for OA policies that strongly encourage colleagues to place papers and articles in library repositories, but books have usually been exempt. Also, some research funding bodies now require OA publication as a condition for receiving funding, but whether this will extend to book-length works is unclear.
Can I get a job (or tenure) if I publish OA books?
Yes. The American Historical Association has recently published guidelines for the evaluation of digital scholarship, which in their definition includes “scholarship that is either produced using computational tools and methods or presented using digital technologies.” OA books - whether simple PDFs or media-rich web-based interfaces -- certainly fit this description. Here, too, judgments about scholarly quality are separate from how works are distributed, so that high-quality OA works may be expected to contribute positively to evaluations for the purposes of hiring, tenure, and promotion.
Review of History of Education Society Conference 2014: ‘Transnationalism, Gender & Teaching: Perspectives from the History of Education’
The 2014 History of Education Conference was held at Bewley’s hotel, Dublin. The hotel was an ideal location for a conference for the society given its interesting history, and many delegates enjoyed discussing the building’s history and its original purpose as a Masonic Girls’ boarding School.
The conference theme of ‘Transnationalism, Gender and Teaching: Perspectives from the History of Education’ was variously explored in over 60 conference papers responding to the theme. Delegates came from a wide number of places; beyond those from the UK and the Republic of Ireland, delegates came from Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Romania, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan and USA. Whilst papers spanned a variety of time periods, there was a predominant focus on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Within the conference sub-themes emerged including: travel; religion; social class; non-institutional education; literacy, writing, literature, publishing and painting; Empire, imperialism and imperial oppression; methodologies; transnational movements of thought, culture and practices; power; methods of communication; identity and understanding of the self and the other; identity and the relationship between the individual, the community and the nation. Taken collectively the papers and the discussions left me reflecting on the intersectionality of transnationalism and gender in educational experiences, particularly the individual's understanding of themselves and others. The conference suggested to me that whilst transnational experiences have been and often continue to be gendered, the reflections - on culture, politics and self - envoked by transnational experiences have at times challenged traditional gender roles and behaviours.
The three keynotes took up the conference theme in various ways: Professor Joyce Goodman MBE on 'Becoming Visible: Gender in Transnational Space and Time - Kasuya Yoshi and Girls' Secondary Education; Professor Elizabeth Smyth on ‘The world wide web of teaching sisters: building networks beyond classroom walls over space and time’ and Professor Dáire Keogh on ‘Our Boys: the Christian Brothers and the formation of youth in the ‘new Ireland’ 1914-44'.
Professor Joyce Goodman, Professor Elizabeth Smyth and Professor Dáire Keogh
On Friday evening delegates joined Dr Professor J Deeks, President of University College Dublin in celebrating the book launch of Dr Deirdre Raftery and Dr Karin Fischer (Eds.), Educating Ireland: Schooling and Social Change 1700-2000 (2014, Irish Academic Press).
On the Saturday afternoon a well-attended AGM of the History of Education Society reported on the work of society. The AGM featured positive reports on the publications of the society. The society continues to encourage researchers to share their work in the History of Education journal, the History of Education Researcher, in this History of Education Society blog and in A History of Education in 50 Objects webspace.
A highlight of the weekend was the Saturday evening conference dinner in the grand Thomas Prior Hall, where delegates had a three course meal whilst enjoying live Irish music.
During the meal the Brehony and Bloomfield book prizes were awarded. Dr Catherine Burke received the Anne Bloomfield prize for A Life in Education and Architecture: Mary Beaumont Medd (2013, Ashgate). Dr Heather Ellis & Dr Maura O’Connor shared the Kevin Brehony prize: Dr Heather Ellis for Generational Conflict and University Refore: Oxford in the Age of Revolution (2012, Brill) and Dr Maura O’Connor for The Development of Infant Education in Ireland, 1838-1948 (2010, Peter Lang)
Dr Catherine Burke
Dr Heather Ellis & Dr Maura O'Connor
With thanks to all the delegates, to the energies all the presenters gave to ensuring the high standard of presentations, to Bewley's hotel, Ballsbridge and their helpful staff and to Dr Deirdre Raftery and to her team for their dedicated hard work in organising such a successful and enjoyable conference.
In 1907, Maria Montessori founded the aboriginal Montessori academy in Rome. Its all-embracing purpose was to accord four to seven year old accouchement from low-income families a full-day educational program.
The abstraction bound developed and grew in acceptance and appropriately added Montessori schools were formed in Europe and India. It did not yield continued for the academy adjustment to cantankerous over to the United States of America.
In fact, Montessori's teaching methods created abundant absorption in the United States from 1910 through 1920. Unfortunately, Montessori's methods assume to be abundantly abandoned in the United States until the backward 1950s.
It was about that time if a additional Montessori movement started in America. This time, the capital focus was on a set of clandestine schools that served an about absolutely common population.
The Montessori educational arrangement struggled with it's own success if it started accepting agitation award abundant teachers. In fact, it took that abecedary curtailment to alpha the conception of free-standing clandestine Montessori abecedary training centers. Each of these centers were not associated with any academy or university and accomplished the Montessori teaching methods to ambitious educators.
In the backward 1960s, some parents started to alarm for the accessible schools in their bounded areas to action the Montessori apprenticeship archetypal for their elementary academy accouchement who had accelerating from clandestine Montessori pre-schools.
The public's blitz of abutment was accustomed a addition by government funds getting fabricated accessible for new Montessori programs starting up in accessible academy areas. Today, over one hundred U.S. academy districts accept some blazon of Montessori program.
But just why has Montessori become so accepted ? Many accept it is due to the program's adeptness to affected three above problems that the accessible academy systems are still faced with. While the accessible academy arrangement has been put into a accompaniment of upheaval, the Montessori academy systems accept flourished.
Using their different teaching methods, Montessori acceptance accept approved a consistently top akin of account apperception and bookish performance. In the book "Montessori Parents Guide", we dive added into how a Montessori affairs is effectively different and sets itself abreast from accepted teaching methods.
Throughout the years, homeschooling has appear to be beyond a allotment
of the boilerplate families acceptable activities. In any event, it
didn't approach to be that way. If you anticipate that homeschooling is
attenuate these days, anticipate of the ancient families to homeschool?
When did homeschooling activate to arise and what prompted the
accessible to commence on ancestry their little kids in the home by
alternative of the average academy setting? There was a time area some
states in achievement dictated by legislation that pupils have to be
schooled. In any event, the acumen abaft that authorization was to
accumulate kids out of the attempt affliction and anatomy them to appear
classes to accretion an education. In the nineteenth aeon there were
several books accounting to advice advance parents through the
apprenticeship of their adolescent humans in their home candied home.
As one may expect, from 1920 through the 1970's, homeschooling was almost sparce and anonymous to farms and ranches too far from their bounded bodies school. When 1970 came about, an columnist by the name of Ivan Illich wrote a book alleged "Deschooling America" that acquired favor for its far out bold plan's and beauteous language. Regardless, it was this advance book that acquired a man alleged John Holt to barrage authoritative his ample appulse on the homeschooling fad.
In 1976, John Constrain wrote "By best of Education: Means to Facilitate Citzens Do Things Enrich." In this antecedent of his absolutely a few books, Holt encouraged others that are are benefit means to acquaint youngsters that what was getting accomplished in schools. He never already mentioned homeschooling, behindhand as his advance book acquired popularity, he accustomed belletrist from parents citation that he absent advertence this advantage for apprenticeship your son or daughter. Because of this, Holt began a annual book alleged "Growing Without Knowledge" for those moms who were opting to homeschool their adolescence at home candied home.