Archive for 2012

The History Of Montessori Education

In 1907, Maria Montessori founded the aboriginal Montessori academy in Rome. Its all-embracing purpose was to accord four to seven year old accouchement from low-income families a full-day educational program.
The abstraction bound developed and grew in acceptance and appropriately added Montessori schools were formed in Europe and India. It did not yield continued for the academy adjustment to cantankerous over to the United States of America.
In fact, Montessori's teaching methods created abundant absorption in the United States from 1910 through 1920. Unfortunately, Montessori's methods assume to be abundantly abandoned in the United States until the backward 1950s.
It was about that time if a additional Montessori movement started in America. This time, the capital focus was on a set of clandestine schools that served an about absolutely common population.
The Montessori educational arrangement struggled with it's own success if it started accepting agitation award abundant teachers. In fact, it took that abecedary curtailment to alpha the conception of free-standing clandestine Montessori abecedary training centers. Each of these centers were not associated with any academy or university and accomplished the Montessori teaching methods to ambitious educators.
In the backward 1960s, some parents started to alarm for the accessible schools in their bounded areas to action the Montessori apprenticeship archetypal for their elementary academy accouchement who had accelerating from clandestine Montessori pre-schools.
The public's blitz of abutment was accustomed a addition by government funds getting fabricated accessible for new Montessori programs starting up in accessible academy areas. Today, over one hundred U.S. academy districts accept some blazon of Montessori program.
But just why has Montessori become so accepted ? Many accept it is due to the program's adeptness to affected three above problems that the accessible academy systems are still faced with. While the accessible academy arrangement has been put into a accompaniment of upheaval, the Montessori academy systems accept flourished.
Using their different teaching methods, Montessori acceptance accept approved a consistently top akin of account apperception and bookish performance. In the book "Montessori Parents Guide", we dive added into how a Montessori affairs is effectively different and sets itself abreast from accepted teaching methods.

Home Apprenticeship History

Throughout the years, homeschooling has appear to be beyond a allotment of the boilerplate families acceptable activities. In any event, it didn't approach to be that way. If you anticipate that homeschooling is attenuate these days, anticipate of the ancient families to homeschool? When did homeschooling activate to arise and what prompted the accessible to commence on ancestry their little kids in the home by alternative of the average academy setting? There was a time area some states in achievement dictated by legislation that pupils have to be schooled. In any event, the acumen abaft that authorization was to accumulate kids out of the attempt affliction and anatomy them to appear classes to accretion an education. In the nineteenth aeon there were several books accounting to advice advance parents through the apprenticeship of their adolescent humans in their home candied home.
As one may expect, from 1920 through the 1970's, homeschooling was almost sparce and anonymous to farms and ranches too far from their bounded bodies school. When 1970 came about, an columnist by the name of Ivan Illich wrote a book alleged "Deschooling America" that acquired favor for its far out bold plan's and beauteous language. Regardless, it was this advance book that acquired a man alleged John Holt to barrage authoritative his ample appulse on the homeschooling fad.
In 1976, John Constrain wrote "By best of Education: Means to Facilitate Citzens Do Things Enrich." In this antecedent of his absolutely a few books, Holt encouraged others that are are benefit means to acquaint youngsters that what was getting accomplished in schools. He never already mentioned homeschooling, behindhand as his advance book acquired popularity, he accustomed belletrist from parents citation that he absent advertence this advantage for apprenticeship your son or daughter. Because of this, Holt began a annual book alleged "Growing Without Knowledge" for those moms who were opting to homeschool their adolescence at home candied home.

History of the Act Theatre Education

Theatre includes acted performances on date that characterize a writers angle on assertive contest be it on celebrated or accepted events. It avalanche beneath a beyond chic of act theatre education. A amphitheater refers to a area abode or a area area an absolute play is performed by actors in foreground of a reside audience. The chat theatre was originally developed from the Greek. Actors on date use gestures accent and added arcane abilities including song and dance. Theatre and a lot of of its avant-garde anatomy was originated from the Greeks i. E. Terminologies used, the altered classifications of genres, casting of characters as able-bodied as artifice elements a part of abundant others. In the class, performances of the afterward are included; musicals, ballet operas play comedies drama.
There is a advanced array of courses that abatement beneath the altered categories and types of act theatre. The aboriginal blazon is ball which is the anatomy in which a writers fabulous abstraction is represented in anatomy of a reside achievement allowable on date for a reside audience. Famous examples of ball are William Shakespeare's apple and Oedipus the baron by Sopheles.
Music, song and ball can be congenital into ball as it relates to the case of operas and musicals which agglutinate the three calm with announced dialogue. Music and ball can aswell be acclimated in ball as accurate accompaniments. These are all accomplished aspects aural the academy of act syllabus.
Another blazon or chic is agreeable which uses a aggregate of accent in anatomy of a chat by the casting on date and dances to congenital songs to anatomy one complete date production. Agreeable one was originally acquired from banana opera which eventually acquired to agreeable comedy. An archetype is the Edwardian agreeable ball in the 1800s.
Additional advance categories cover tragedy and comedy. A characteristic affection in ball is the use of amusement in the account and achievement of belief including use of added styles e. G. Mimics a part of abundant others.
In the instance of tragedy, afterlife and adversity are the capital depictions acclimated to accompany a afflicted apery of specific celebrated contest as able-bodied as relationships amid adverse lovers as in the instance of Romeo and Juliet by Sir William Shakespeare. In avant-garde times frequently acclimated agreement cover tragicomic, action and ballsy amphitheater that abide to be an important delineation of altered societies.
It employs the use of altered abstruse aspects that cover aggregate acknowledgment and an chip anatomy of production. The capital anatomy of abstract afflicted by these aspects is the affecting argument structure.
A accession from the playwright, actors in the casting calm with the administrator and his assembly aggregation is a key aspect in the authoritative of a complete date assembly in affiliation to act theatre education. In accepted scenography is the appellation acclimated to call the absolute accumulating of abstruse aspects active in stagecraft. These cover the date design, adornment adjustment as able-bodied as the the lighting directions. In accession to these are the apparel architecture and makeup.

The Left’s Apprenticeship Mantra, Hide the History Books -- Keep the Accessible Stupid

Old sayings can be actual powerful, such as, “Those who do not abstraction history are bedevilled to echo it.” I accept this is a actual accurate account but not a absolutely accurate statement. There are some acquaint in history that accept collapsed or been pushed to the side. We accept to all abstraction our history, the adventure of this abundant country, what fabricated it great, the execptionalism that fabricated and makes it different (although President Obama does all he can to capsize this) and the founding attempt that accept to be adequate today.
There are some abundant acquaint in history that should and accept to accommodate advice for our leaders today. Out bearings today (high unemployment, abridgement of customer confidence, business in agitation and unions ambitious added and added and getting accustomed it by the accepted Obama regime). Just go aback to the end of the Woodrow Wilson presidency. Income tax was alien by the Accelerating administration, a simple 7% to advice do what is right. Never apperception this grew to over 70% by the end of World War 1. The backbreaking taxes advance to a recession. A difficult one but a abbreviate lived one. Abbreviate lived because the accepted faculty cerebration of Warren Harding and Calvin Coolidge. Taxes were lowered, US government revenues increased, businesses began investing, jobs were created and American Consumerism was fueled, abandoning the recession (a recession we Americans apperceive little about) and creating an absurd aeon of growth. Seems like just the adverse of what is accident today.
In simple terms, Harding and Coolidge did not absorb tax payer’s money to actualize jobs, they bargain burdens on business. Business again kicked into gear, creating millions of jobs and breeding added money in taxes, admitting the low tax rates. Sort of makes sense, Get out of business’ way, let them do what they do best, abnormally baby business and the country will be able-bodied on the way to healing its wounds.
But to even anticipate about accomplishing this we accept to be acquainted of our history. Something the accepted administering and progressives are angry ruthlessly, abaft the scenes, to prevent. Just yield a attending at the advocacy from Center of American Progress. A cleverly buried advance on the teaching of American History. Sure, we all apperceive that we charge to cut spending in apprenticeship so this is acclimated as the “deflector shield” to advance a accelerating tactic to bankrupt us of the ability of our history, or that allotment of history that is not admiring of the Accelerating thinking. Here is some of the cuts they are proposing and acumen them as attenuated low appulse programs (
• The Academies for American History and Civics; this is a affairs which provides workshops for agents on American history.
• Excellence in bread-and-butter education. This is a admission advised to advance bread-and-butter and banking articulacy a part of K to 12 students.
• Other programs with attenuated focus such as those adopting borough responsibility.
I assumption they amount that if we don’t apperceive about how dupe the American business in fact angry things about in the accomplished they can abide to position the federal government as the amenable article to break all problems and as such accept to connected to be adjourned at what anytime levels necessary.
It aswell seems that we can impaired down the next bearing of adults by eliminating banking articulacy programs in schools the Accelerating way of cerebration can be foisted on the accessible with little able resistance.
Two simple questions association -
Where the hell did accepted faculty go?
How paine-ful a appearance is this snapshot of America to our Founding Fathers?

Education Activist Challenges Education Establishment: Stop the Lies

Here’s what the USA is faced with: crumbling articulacy ante and added than 50,000,000 anatomic illiterates. How could the Education Establishment get abroad with creating this massive accident to our society? The quick acknowledgment is they told a lot of lies. I’m allurement them to stop. For 75 years the Education Establishment has answer Whole Word and approved to marginalize Phonics, as abundant as accessible in both cases. Still today, afterwards eight decades of adversity and dyslexia, and admitting their own claims of all-embracing a added counterbalanced approach, abounding schools and educators assume to accept abstruse nothing. Check the internet and you’ll acquisition that Dolch Words, Sight Word, Word Walls and the blow are agilely pushed, as if they are some admirable new invention.

This betray is congenital on one fantasy in particular: that bodies can apprentice to apprehend English application sight-words. Therefore accouchement shouldn’t abstraction belletrist and sounds, because it’s abundant easier to acquire shapes. Not true.

Truth is, about cipher can acquire even 1,000 of ANYTHING. Consider flags, archetypal cars, celebrities, acclaimed monuments or abundant paintings--pick the non-phonetic altar that would be easiest for you. How abounding could you acquire to the point area a account is flashed and you say the name? Allow months to plan on this. Throw in a big banknote prize. Could you ability 500? 800? 1,000??
But you accept to name them quickly. At atomic one a second. Otherwise, it’s annihilation like reading.

Point is, abstraction 1,000 sight-words is like abstraction 1,000 sight-ANYTHING. Which is about cool unless you accept a accurate memory. (In fact, abstraction flags, cars, paintings, celebrities, or monuments is easier than abstraction English words, because our belletrist arise as lower and UPPER case, not to acknowledgment abounding hundreds of blazon styles.)
So, 1,000 is apparently the high absolute for abstraction a lot of categories of things, for a lot of people. But 1,000 sight-words is alone the BEGINNING of literacy, which requires at atomic 10,000 words. Now do you see the problem? Whole Word demands that accouchement do something that is not humanly possible.

Furthermore, during the abounding years if accouchement are aggravating to do this mission impossible, their bookish advance and self-esteem will be absolutely destroyed. And all of this accident will abide for as continued as our country lets the Education Establishment get abroad with this malfeasance.

So actuality is the aspect of the Big Lie: that abstraction bags of sight-words is doable. Frank Smith, the arch priest of Whole Word, agilely appear that humans can apprentice 50,000 or even 100,000 sight-words. Not true.
The little ambush that the Education Establishment plays is to pretend that English words are a appropriate affectionate of beheld object, and if you attending at them a few times, you accept them for life. Not true.

The Education Establishment can get abroad with these cool lies alone because a lot of adults don’t stop and reflect : hey, what is getting asked of my kid here? That’s why I allure you to extrapolate abroad from account to something abroad you are adequate with--cars, paintings, faces, etc.
Try to brainstorm the amazing assignment of abstraction a thousand such objects--so you can name them with “automaticity,” as the educators say that accouchement have to do. Memory, you’ll find, is a arbitrary friend. As you abort to adept 1,000 of your admired objects, I adumbrate you’ll be thinking, “Those *&+# educators are lying ^*%#@.”
But let’s say you hit 1,000. Congratulations. Bet you can’t hit 2,000. At which point you would still be a anatomic illiterate.

History Of Business Administration Education

Business administration school is a university-level institution that educates learners on such topics as accounting, finance, marketing, organizational behavior, strategy planning, and quantitative methods. Most business administration schools have experienced well-qualified faculties, and efficient managements. In 1881, the first 'collegiate business school' was founded in Wharton.
Business Schools before World War II were mostly "schools of commerce" and were conducted in relatively low esteem. After the Second World War and especially after 1960, Business Administration Schools began to grow rapidly. They are often known as university graduate schools. MBA degrees originally occurred in the United States of America, due to the fast industrialization growth that made it essential for companies to use scientific approaches to teach management. The first MBA degree was offered by Dartmouth College in 1900. Business schools have mushroomed and flourished in all states and countries thus, making them feasible for individuals who work during the day to take classes and earn degrees at night.
Since 1988, business schools have changed deans, altered curriculums, and stressed new expertise among their students. A MBA degree has opened abundant opportunities for its bearers. Presently, nearly all business positions require an MBA degree as the minimum qualification. This includes business managers in marketing, finance, human resources, operations, and information technology. Investment entities, banking companies and a number of management consulting firms prefer employing MBA graduates specializing in the field of finance. These graduates are well conversant in their respective fields. For industries such as media and entertainment, an MBA is not a necessity, but it is considered an additional asset.
There are wide ranges of options among the different academic institutions that offer business courses. Various sites are available wherein detailed information about all the specialization fields are mentioned along with their course details. These sites also offer information regarding the universities that are well qualified and offer competent MBA programs.
Business Administration provides detailed information on Business Administration, Small Business Administration, Business Administration Degrees, Business Administration Degrees Online and more. Business Administration is affiliated with Bookkeeping Jobs.

Some Thoughts on the History of American Education - A Book Review

Often, people complain about the schools in the United States, and there are some that say that we are number 50 in the world as far as our schools are concerned. Still, there those of us that know the difference, and also understand that those that are doing these surveys are not from the United States, and they use different criteria to judge what a good school is. And the reality is the United States does have great schools.
No, they are not perfect, and we should always strive to make them better, of course that's what we've been doing since the nation has been founded. If you would like to learn more about the history of education in America, then I'd like to recommend a very good book to you. The name of the book is;
"Traditions of American Education" by Lawrence A. Gremin, 1977
Indeed, I am happy to say I have a copy of this book signed by the author. The intent of writing this book for the author was to make a difference transforming American Education; schools and colleges. The book examines the transformations of family, libraries, museums, publishers throughout the 19th century. There are also chapters on the Civil War factories, slavery and education, missed education, colonial education, education in the periods of 1783 to 1876, 1876 to 1976.
Also an explanation of how we adopted some of the European school system policies, and the author discusses rural versus metropolitan schools in America and the history behind it. There is information on 17th-century issues and the abandonment of feudalism, population growth, land speculation, social mobility, and religious strife all changing education along with the advances of science where Earth was no longer the center of the universe, and how English law, language, and culture ended up triumphing and changing education around the world due to colonial expansionism.
He talks about compulsory education and he explains how the church and family used to dominate education and how today the family has fallen apart and the churches are not allowed to dictate issues in schools.
He also speaks to vocational training, corporate training, union training, and the progressive mass media which has contributed to the way we think and learn. This book is completely comprehensive and an incredible study in the history of education. It's a must read for any school administrator who wishes to led, they must know the history. Often however I find when I discuss this with them they don't, that to concerns me. Please consider all this.

The History of Nursing Education

If you have ever seen a documentary about a war or seen a past war in a movie then you may have noticed what the role of nurses was like in the past. Often times we are able to see the role of nurses as trial and error. Usually women who were around war or battlefields were asked to assist in taking care of the soldiers. Now individuals who wish to enter the field of nursing have to have a certain amount of training and schooling before they can be near patients. This article will look at the history of nursing education. It will look into the past and chart the journey that it has made till now.
Most early nursing records and achievements can be linked to Clara Barton. During the Civil War she quickly learned that she had to get things organized and get herself to the battlefield to help the wounded. Due to her efforts, there was a recognition that the medical world needed to be a little more organized in order to effectively help patients.
Soon word spread of the advancements and Congress authorized the founding of the Army Nurse Cops in 1901. This was the first time in history that we were able to have accounts of nurses being in a group that would train them and teach them the tools they would need to better assist soldiers with their battle wounds. This was also the first time that we see training in the prevention of diseases. This whole movement started the ball rolling on the advancements that we have in place today.
Another major breakthrough came just a few years later with Annie Walburton Goodrich. She became the first women named president of the American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses. She was instrumental on making sure that schools followed certain guidelines and that there was proper education for the students.
Some schools that have been instrumental in the continued education of nursing are Columbia University, Yale University, and The University of Michigan. Columbia University has the oldest program in nursing midwifery, it was the first to offer a masters degree in nursing, and was the first school to be recognized by the World Health Organization. Yale Nursing School allowed women to get an education even when they weren't allowed in Yale University. They also established a Bachelor of Science in Nursing program. At the University of Michigan, we saw the first five-year program that offered 2 years in literature, arts, and sciences followed by three years in nursing.
Nursing programs have developed even further now and you can continue your education online. You can actually start by getting a degree in nursing online and obtain higher degrees or certifications as time goes on. This allows you to gain the knowledge that you need to gain work and then as you work you will be able to decide how much further you wish your education to go. Online nursing degrees can be faster, cheaper, and still offer you quality education. You can start your journey by finding a school to fit your education needs.

Sufficient Impacts on the History of Special Education

Special Education, over the years, has grown and improved substantially. The history of it contains many admirable historical figures and events that have defined and impacted Special Education. I, however, picked 4 people and one event that I thought had a great impact on Special education. Without these people, special education would not be where it is today. I believe Jean Itard, Edouard Seguin, Helen Keller, Samuel Howe and the Brown Vs. Board of Education, were all important highlights in the history of Special Ed. Although they are not the only ones that should be commended for doing an outstanding job in improving the status of Special Ed, education would not progress as much without them.
Jean Itard is perhaps best defined as "the Father of Special Education" Although he was not aware that his work would have been defined as Special education, his work had a profound effect on future generations. Itard was educated to be a tradesman. However, during the French Revolution, he joined the army to become an assistant surgeon. After the war, he took upon a new and challenging project called Victor. Victor was a wild, animal- like boy that was found running around in the forest. In 1800 he was bought to Paris for observation. When Itard saw the wild, uncivilized boy, he assumed that he had been recently abandoned by his parents. Like a wild animal that does not like to be caged, Victor escaped a couple of times from a widow's bedroom window. He was normally deficient, but Itard believed he could educate the boy through experience. During Itard's time, it was a common belief that mentally disabled people were uneducable. The remarkable guru spent five years trying to "cure" him. After 5 years, Victor could read and speak a few words, and could also show affection towards his caretakers. Unfortunately, he never reached normality. Itard thought he had failed as a teacher, but his experience with Victor taught others that in order to achieve the smallest success, he had to accept Victor as a person. His work implemented the most important truth of all, and that was that education had to be in harmony with the dynamic nature of life.
The next important historical figure was not a teacher, but a remarkable student. Helen Keller had an illness which left her blind and deaf. As a young child, she suffered through severe retardation. She made animal like sounds, ripped her clothes off, and was not toilet trained. It was apparent that she lacked civilized traits. Many years later, even she said "I was an animal." Poor Helen had become a very difficult child. She terrorized the house hold, and often endangered the people in it. The Kellers were advised to visit an expert on deaf children. This was the well known Alexander Graham Bell. Bell suggested that the family seek an instructor from Perkins University.
On March 3rd, 1883, she met her teacher and caretaker, Miss Anne Sullivan. During the first meeting of theirs, Anne spelled out the word d-o-l-l on her arm. After writing the word on her arm, Anne gave Helen a doll, to show her what "doll" was. The next word she was spelled out was "cake" Although she could quickly repeat the same finger movements, Helen never really understood what the words meant. While Anne was struggling to help her understand the meaning of a word, she also was struggling to try to control Helen's undesirable behavior. Making her educated and civilized was a great challenge for Anne. After a month, her behavior did improve. It was that initial month that the bond between Anne and Helen was established. After that month was the time that people referred to as the "miracle. It was not until 1887, that Helen began to grasp an understanding of the words. Anne pumped water on to Helen's hand, and spelled out the word on her hand. Something about this activity helped Helen understand the meaning of the words.. Helen progressed as an individual over the years.
The life that she lived has had an impact on teaching methods, as well as technology. With the aid of Anne, through her writing, lectures, and the way she lived life, she has shown people that being disabled is not the end of the world. Her impact on education can be shown through this quote of hers: "The public must learn that the blind man is neither genus nor a freak nor an idiot. He has a mind that can be educated, a hand which can be trained..."

Diversity Pioneers In The History Of Diversity Education


Diversity education is becoming a solution for many businesses. In the European Union, it is offered to small and medium-sized businesses to develop their capacity to include people of across states in the union and cultures. Australia's government utilizes diversity education to end a history of discrimination against Aboriginal and Islander people. Asia finds it useful for increasing productivity in multinational companies, and for addressing the historical challenges of achieving harmony between Muslim and Hindu citizens. South Africa has implemented diversity education to adjust to the removal of the Apartheid system. The United States has offered diversity education for decades, although the rationale for its use has changed over time.This article is limited to characterizing the history of diversity education in the United States. A history of diversity education in other countries and continents will follow in future issues.
Diversity Training and education in the United States
Many organizations, communities, military sectors, and higher education institutions have been conducting some form of diversity education since the 1960s in the United States. Businesses used diversity training in the late 1980s and throughout the 90s to protect against and settle civil rights suits. Many organizations now assume that diversity education can boost productivity and innovation in an increasingly diverse work environment. The assumptions about the value of diversity training, as a result of its changing functions and uses, have evolved over the decades.
Diversity education basically started as a reaction to the civil rights movement and violent demonstrations by activists determined to send a clear message to Americans of European descent that black people would no longer remain voiceless regarding their treatment as citizens. Social change in order to achieve a more stable society prevailed was the rationale for the education, which primarily focused on training to increase sensitivity towards and awareness of racial differences.
Encounter groups became a popular training method for bringing white and black Americans together for honest and emotional discussions about race relations. The military employed encounter groups in what is perhaps the largest scale diversity education experiment ever conducted. Many of the facilitators viewed the "encounter" among racial group participating in diversity training as successful when at least one white American admitted that he or she was racist and tearful about racial discrimination and white supremacy.
Employing a black-white pair of facilitators was considered essential for exposing participants to the two race relations perspective and to model cross-racial collaboration. The facilitators were typically men, and the white facilitator was most valued if he could openly show emotions about his own journey in discovering his deep-seated racism.
Facilitators saw their work as a way to achieve equality in a world that had historically oppressed those with less social, political, and economic power. Confronting white Americans who made excuses for, or denied their racism, was common in this diversity training approach. The goal was to increase white American sensitivity to the effects of racial inequity.
White American participants tended to respond to confrontation in sensitivity training in three important ways. One group of whites became more insightful about the barriers to race relations as a result of being put on the hot seat during the encounters. Another group became more resistant to racial harmony as they fought against accepting the facilitators' label of them as racists. A third group became what the military referred to as "fanatics." These individuals began advocating against any forms of racial injustice after the training.
H. R. Day's research on diversity training in the military indicates that the Defense Department Race Relations Institute reduced the amount of training hours and curtailed the use of the "hot seat" techniques in response to negative evaluations by many participants who completed the training. Diversity training in corporations also began to change as Affirmative Action laws were being curtailed by the federal government.
While gender diversity education began to emerge during the 1970s and 1980s, diversity education in the United States expanded in the 1990s to focus on barriers to inclusion for other identity groups. Ability difference, ethnic, religious, gay, lesbian, and other worldviews began to appear in education and training.
Some diversity pioneers argue that the broader view of diversity has "watered down" the focus on race to the extent that it is no longer seriously dealt with in training. Their assumption is that focusing on prejudice towards other groups does not activate the visceral reaction needed for individuals, organizations, and the society as whole to deal with core discrimination issues.
Recent research shows that people in the United States have more negative reactions towards people who are gay or lesbian. It seems that many Americans share an anti-gay and lesbian attitude, primarily based on religious beliefs. However, even the attitude towards gays and lesbians is becoming more positive way, as indicated by the success of the movie Brokeback Mountain about two cowboy lovers, and the introduction of legislation that protects their rights.
Multiculturalism refers to the inclusion of the full range of identity groups in education. The goal is to take into consideration each of the diverse ways people identify as cultural beings. This perspective has become the most widely used approach today in diversity education. The inclusion of other identity groups poses the challenges of maintaining focus on unresolved racial discrimination and effectively covering the many different identity groups.
The current focus on white privilege training in one sector of diversity work maintains a place for racism in diversity education. White privilege education involves challenging white people to consider the benefits they reap individually as a member of the racial group with the most social, political, and economic power.
While white privilege, multiculturalism, and racism work are each very important, diversity professionals must keep in mind that organizations vary in diversity education needs. Determining how to meet these needs requires the trainer to possess critical thinking skills and an ability to facilitate issues outside of her or his cultural experience. The capable diversity professional has the ability to determine when race education is the suitable intervention, when gender orientation is called for, when addressing homophobia is necessary, etc.
Discussions about gender differences, sexual orientation, Native American identity, Latino empowerment, white privilege, etc. provide a rich context for understanding the complexity of American diversity. Today's savvy diversity trainer has the expertise to take a multicultural perspective in facilitating and training, and he or she commands knowledge of the range of identity groups. Giving each identity group the attention it deserves is no small matter as a result.
The reality of global mobilization has required an even broader view of diversity work due to working with an increasingly cross-national audience. The use of the label African American, for example, is complicated by white and black Africans immigrating to the United States. An organization may have employees from the former Yugoslavia, refugees from Somalia, guest workers from India, and people with limited English-speaking skills-just to name a few modern diversity challenges. Religious diversity accompanies globalism, which is also included in modern diversity education.
It is likely that this complexity of identity group needs prompted diversity professionals like Judith Katz to focus on promoting inclusive organizations. The objective is to remove the barriers to productivity for every member of the organization with particular concern for historically excluded group members.
Another recent change is the emphasis on diversity education, rather than diversity training. While the use of one term versus another is regularly debated, it is a valuable exchange of ideas. From the author's perspective, the term diversity education both broadens the view of what diversity programs within organizations are about and manages the often negative connotation diversity training activates. Perhaps more important is that the term allows us to distinguish between diversity training and other programmatic activities among diversity practices.
In addition, diversity expertise has changed over time, which partly reflects changing demands and the growth in the field's body of knowledge. A description of the profession before the rise of the chief diversity officer tells us a lot about what diversity professionals faced as consultants.
Diversity Pioneers
Diversity professionals are hired on staff in organizations that understand that diversity is capital and harnessing it in the service of productivity requires a long term commitment. An in-house diversity professional is responsible for leading a diversity initiative within an organization. Some have the title chief diversity officer or vice president of diversity, while others are considered diversity coordinators or steering committee chairs. Regardless of what they are called, these positions are becoming increasingly prevalent in organizations. Not long ago, a human resource officer would hire a consultant or trainer to handle a diversity matter with sensitivity-awareness training as the expected the solution.
Diversity pioneers laid the foundation for the emergence of today's diversity leaders. A diversity pioneer is someone who has been in the profession for more than twenty years, which includes those who have served either as an in-house or consulting professional. The in-house professionals are activists for diversity, inclusion and fairness. It is the contributions of external consultants and trainers that is the focus in this article.
Here is a list of diversity pioneers in the United States:
o Elsie Cross
o Price Cobb
o Sybil Evans
o John Fernandez
o Lee Gardenswartz
o Lewis Griggs
o Ed Hubbard
o Judith Katz
o Frances Kendall
o Fred Miller
o Patricia Pope
o Ann Rowe
o Donna Springer
o Roosevelt Thomas
The list is based on data collected a couple of years ago by Diversity Training University International students. An editorial staff member brought to the author's attention that he began his diversity teaching and consulting career in 1986. His initial reaction was feeling intimidated by the thought of placing his name on a list with such an esteemed group of pioneers.
Few diversity pioneers had specialized training when starting out in the business. Louis Griggs, for example, is a Stanford MBA. Judith Katz had a more closely related background with a doctorate from University of Massachusetts that focused on race relations. She also taught in the University of Oklahoma Human Relations Program for ten years prior to entering the business sector as a fulltime consultant.
The author is trained as an applied research cultural- cognitive psychologist at the University of California, San Diego. After receiving the doctorate in 1986, he taught cultural competence for nearly two decades. Each diversity pioneer had had to learn about how to navigate the landmines in diversity work while on the front lines as consultants, trainers, and educators.
What the pioneers may have lacked in credentials specific to the diversity profession, they more than made up for with the bumps and bruises they endured in the trenches of just doing the work.
Raising the Bar
Judith Katz was a student activist for social justice in the late 1960s. Judith began her diversity profession by focusing on racism from a white American perspective. By the mid 1980s she was working for The Kaleel Jamison Consulting Group. Affirmative action was at its height, and many companies utilized independent diversity professionals to provide programs to help increase the numbers of African Americans and women employees. Some organizations utilized diversity training to safeguard against civil rights suits during this period of time. Much of the training "focused primarily on black-white racial issues and sexism", according to Judith, "with little if any attention given to, Latino, Asian, sexual orientation, age or people with disabilities."
Judith also noticed that the business case in those days emphasized diversity as doing the right thing, rather than as a business imperative. People were expected to fit into the existing organizational culture. It was difficult at the time to effect real organizational change.
"The major change is that diversity is now accepted as a key business driver, rather than diversity for diversity's sake." This was accompanied by a shift away from the confrontational approach common in the early stages of diversity education history. According to Judith, "for some folks diversity was about compliance (the concern about law suits) for others it was about increasing individual diversity awareness. The confrontational approach to raising individual awareness did not create systems change in the long run. Some individuals became more aware but the very systems, structures and processes often remained unchanged. Judith notes that many organizations still approach diversity from a compliance perspective but, more and more organizational leaders are going well beyond that. They understand that "if you are not leveraging diversity, you are not in the game of business today."
Judith is concerned about the challenges that continue to face diversity professionals as well as chief diversity officers. The following is a list of some of her concerns for in-house professionals who lead diversity initiatives:
o Diversity leaders must contend with organizational leaders who give lip service to the diversity initiative without putting their hearts and souls into it or offer it the necessary resources for success.
o As a result, diversity leaders too often shoulder the full weight of the diversity initiative.
o They can get too buried in the work to be effective.
o They are expected to partner with many different parts of the organization, which contributes to additional stress.
o They work alone and are expected to single-handedly get a very difficult job done.
o They are expected to manage a highly political role while getting their job done and legally protecting the organization.
The result is that leading the diversity initiative can be a very difficult, demanding, and lonely job from Judith's perspective.
Judith believes that leaders of organizations need to "raise its bar" for expectations in delivering results from the diversity initiative. This is the best way to support the diversity officer. A good example is to make people in the organization accountable for contributing to promoting inclusion-especially managers and supervisors. Linking bonuses and merit pay to clear diversity and inclusion metrics is seldom given serious consideration in even the top fifty diversity companies. But this obviously raises the bar of expectations and performance.
Thanks to Judith, diversity consultants and trainers have a role model. In the author's opinion, she is one of the few who can successfully engage business leaders in serious discussions about organizational inclusion.
Valuing Diversity
Valuing diversity is a term that's used quite a bit these days in making a case for diversity and inclusion-Thanks to Lewis Griggs. When he coined the words during the early 1980s, his clients thought it was "too touchy-feely." It wasn't affirmative action or equal employment opportunity language. One African American male colleague told him that the terminology was downright dangerous because white America was not ready to value people for their differences. But, fortunately for us, he had a vision.
Lewis is a European American who came to diversity work through his own individual growth experiences. Griggs says "While doing international training during the early 1980s, I realized that people from other countries had more knowledge about me as an American than I had about them. This meant the 'other' had more power over me in our interactions. I discovered how ethnocentric I was." Griggs figured that if he was ethnocentric about people from other countries, then "Could I be ethnocentric here in the United States?"
Griggs continued to do ground breaking work. He developed a series of valuing diversity videos. Then he developed one of the first online diversity training programs. The annual diversity conference offered by the Society of Human Resource Management was created by Lewis. Thanks to Lewis, increasing numbers of organizations have embraced the idea that we need to value differences.
Avoiding a Backlash
The higher education sector started offering diversity courses in the general education curricula during the 1980s. Stanford University and the California State University at Fullerton, for example, dared to offer mandatory cultural diversity courses to fulfill general education requirements. There was considerable debate among academicians about whether or not the canon needed protection against including diversity courses.
The author found himself in the middle of the cultural wars as a new assistant professor with a joint appointment in Ethnic Studies and psychology. His training made it easy to interweave cultural differences into developmental, social, and cognitive psychology courses. He also taught mandatory general education diversity courses. The primarily European American, politically conservative students were very resistant to the required courses.
Students resisted less as the courses integrated into the curricula over the years, but many continued to struggle with the material due to difficulty with accepting values and beliefs different from their own.
Recruitment of historically excluded group members, especially students of color, was the primary focus at most universities. No one would seriously listen to ideas about creating an inclusive organization before increasing the numbers of students of color. The attitude was "let's just get as many students of color in as possible and worry about how to retain them later". Retaining and graduating these historically excluded students became major problems as the numbers of recruits increased.
The author also witnessed incredible gains in attracting students of historically excluded groups and creating an inclusive environment-only to see those gains undermined by changes in the leadership and economic climate. The lesson learned is that sustainable diversity and inclusion initiatives require an on-going commitment to remove all the barriers that can lead to reverting to old ways of doing business. Diversity and inclusion must, for example, be part of each and every new initiative that comes along in order to protect the organization from moving back to earlier inclusion stages.
As economic, political, and global changes required new ways of solving old problems, the pioneers experienced many bumps in the road. This brief history suggests that their sheer determination and commitment built an invaluable foundation from which we all can draw meaningful lessons. This magazine is designed as a solution for building on the pioneers' foundation so that we can better manage the impact of inevitable environmental changes that impact diversity work.
1. Vaughn, B. E. (2002). Heuristic model of managing emotions in race relations training. In E. Davis-Russell (Ed.), Multicultural Education, Research, Intervention, & Training (pp. 296-318). San Francisco, CA.: Jossey-Bass.
2. Day, H. R. (1983). Race relations training in the military. In D. Landis & R. Brislin (Eds.), Handbook of Intercultural Training, Vol. II: Issues in training methodology (pp. 241-289). New York: Pergamon Press.
3. Devine, P. G., & Monteith, M. J. (1993). The role of discrepancy-associated affect in prejudice reduction. In D. Mackie & D. Hamilton (Eds.), Affect, cognition, and stereotyping: Interactive processes in group perception (pp. 137-166), San Diego, CA.: Harcourt, Brace, & Jananovich.
4. The work of Janice Fenn and Chandra Goforth Irvin is worth mentioning here, especially their 2005 publication of "Do you see what I see?: a diversity tale for retaining people of color".

A Brief History of Nursing Education

When people think of the history of nursing education many immediately think of Florence Nightingale. However, nursing goes back even further than that. In fact, during the 18th century a slave named James Derham was able to buy his own freedom from the money he earned as a nurse. Nobody knew back then that a nursing education could be obtained in any other way than simply hands on through an apprenticeship. But, today there are many ways to study and learn more about nursing. Great examples of these are online nursing education and nursing continuing education.
But, it took a long time for these nursing programs to develop. And, they are descendents of the first nursing program that was established in the 1850s in London. Japan's first nursing institute was established in 1885 and the first nursing institute for blacks in the United States followed the next year. The field of nursing was growing rapidly with the influences of individuals like Florence Nightingale and Claray Barton who established the Red Cross.
In the late 1800s the idea of visiting nursing was established by Lillian Wald and she began teaching a home nursing class. The American Nurses Association held its first meeting and the topics discussed helped further nursing education. Nurses began to be regulated on a national basis by New Zealand in 1901 and then other countries around the world began to follow suit.
The first nursing education that was established in the United States on the basis of education rather than the needs of hospitals was at Yale University in 1923. The Yale School of Nursing had its own curriculum and students were required to meet the educational standards of the university in order to graduate. This really set the stage for the future of education and since then universities across the nation have developed nursing programs of their own. Then, in the 1950s Colombia University offered a master's in nursing and was the first university to do so. This really changed the nursing environment and allowed for nursing continuing education and nurses to grow in their chosen profession.
Now, more than 80 years later, a nursing education is available at college campuses, via online courses, and even through nursing continuing education. Men and women who want to become nurses can do so around their schedule and take advantage of all the study options for this amazing profession. There are many choices when it comes to an online nursing education and prospective nurses should really compare all of the programs to ensure they are studying from the best online university and are learning as much about nursing as possible.
Natalie Aranda writes about education and learning. When people think of the history of nursing education many immediately think of Florence Nightingale. However, nursing goes back even further than that. In fact, during the 18th century a slave named James Derham was able to buy his own freedom from the money he earned as a nurse. Nobody knew back then that a nursing education could be obtained in any other way than simply hands on through an apprenticeship. But, today there are many ways to study and learn more about nursing. Great examples of these are online nursing education and nursing continuing education.

Brief History of Education in Nigeria

Long before the Europeans arrived, education had been part of Nigerians. The Children were taught about their culture, social activities, survival skills and work. Most of these education processes were impacted into the children informally; a few of these societies gave a more formal teaching of the society and culture.
In these Societies, there are formal instructions that governed the rites of passage from youth into adulthood. The youth is expected to have attained the necessary social and survival skills as well as having a grounded knowledge in the culture. These are the foundations of education in Nigeria, and upon them were the western education implemented upon.
European Education was introduced into Nigeria in the 1840s. It began in Lagos, Calabar and other coastal cities. In a few decades schooling in English language gradually took roots in the Nigeria. During the Colonial years, Great Britain did not promote education. The schools were set up and operated by Christian Missionaries. The British colonial government only funded a few schools. The policy of the government was to give grant to mission schools rather than expand the system.
In the northern part of Nigeria, which was predominantly Muslim populated, Western-style education was prohibited. The religious leaders did not want the missionaries interfering with Islam. This gave way to establishing Islamic school that focused primarily on the Islamic education.
Today, adult literacy has been estimated to be over 78 percent for men and 64 percent for women. These statistics were made based on estimate literacy in English. That excludes the literacy in Arabic among northern Muslims. It is therefore not erroneous to call Nigeria a nation dominated with educated persons.
Prior to Nigeria's independence, Nigeria had only two established Post-secondary Institution. Yaba Higher college (founded in 1934, Now Yaba College of Technology) and the University of Ibadan was founded in 1948. It was then a College of the University of London until two years after the independence when she became autonomous. More prominent universities which include University of Nigeria, Obafemi Awolowo University (formerly University of Ife), Ahmadu Bello University and Mohood Abiola Kashimawo University (formerly University of Lagos) were founded in the years that followed the Independence.
In 1970s more universities were founded which include University of Benin (founded in 1970), and new university opened in Calabar, Ilorin, Jos, Port Harcourt, Sokoto and Maiduguri. In the 1980s, more universities were opened as well as institute specializing in Agriculture and Technology. A number of Polytechnics were also opened, which includes the Yaba College of Technology in Lagos and Kaduna Polytechnics.
In 1980, the estimated enrollment in the primary schools was 12 million, Secondary and technical colleges 1.2 million, teachers colleges 240,000 and Universities 75,000. One would expect that with such an estimate, the Nigerian education in Nigeria three decades after would have greatly improved. Unfortunately the reverse has been the case.
The present decline in the Nigerian education system can be traced back to the 1980s and 1990s. Then there was a shortage of qualified teachers, the few qualified teachers were not paid in a timely manner. The number of schools did not grow with the population and many of the existing schools were inadequately funded resulting in poor maintenance. In the Universities inadequate funding led to the shortage of space and resources. Increase in tuition fee often resulted in riots leading to cancellation of semesters. Industrial actions by the University Staff requesting for higher salaries and better working conditions also compounded the situations. However, today governors in most state are addressing these issues.
The damage to the educational system has been done. Most graduates lack the necessary survival and social skills that should have been learnt in schools. These have led to many disastrous situations in the nation. The center of the nation's growth "the Education system" no longer holds value; hence the entire nation is falling apart. Products of the Nigeria education system are not employable, causing massive unemployment and under-development in the country. No survival skills leading to increased poverty rate in the country.
The situation however is not entirely hopeless. The foundation of education in Nigeria upon which the Europeans laid the western-style education is strong. This has managed to hold the educational system of the country together through the trouble days. However, if left unattended, we will all join Chinua Achebe and exclaim: Things fall apart, The center cannot hold... Anarchy is set forth everywhere.

History of Educational Technology

There is no written evidence which can tell us exactly who has coined the phrase educational technology. Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at different time intervals have put forwarded different definitions of Educational Technology. Educational technology is a multifaceted and integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization, where technology from different fields of science is borrowed as per the need and requirement of education for implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions to those problems involved in all aspects of human learning.
Educational technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five stages.
The first stage of educational technology is coupled with the use of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens and concrete materials. The term educational technology was used as synonyms to audio-visual aids.
The second stage of educational technology is associated with the 'electronic revolution' with the introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software. Use of various audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, educational technology concept was taken in terms of these sophisticated instruments and equipments for effective presentation of instructional materials.
The third stage of educational technology is linked with the development of mass media which in turn led to 'communication revolution' for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) used for education since 1950s also became popular during this era.
The fourth stage of educational technology is discernible by the individualized process of instruction. The invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction provided a new dimension to educational technology. A system of self-learning based on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged.
The latest concept of educational technology is influenced by the concept of system engineering or system approach which focuses on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies and the use of the computer in instruction. According to it, educational technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the total process of teaching and learning in terms of specific objectives based on research.
Educational technology during the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age
Educational technology, despite the uncertainty of the origin of the term, can be traced back to the time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.
Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of fire by rubbing stones, manufacture of various handmade weapon and utensils from stones and clothing practice were some of the simple technological developments of utmost importance. A fraction of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship technology to migrate from one place to another across the Ocean, by which they developed their first informal education of knowledge of the ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. During the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period),for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which can be considered as the first steps in mining technology. The polished axes were so effective that even after appearance of bronze and iron; people used it for clearing forest and the establishment of crop farming.
Although Stone Age cultures left no written records, but archaeological evidences proved their shift from nomadic life to agricultural settlement. Ancient tools conserved in different museums, cave paintings like Altamira Cave in Spain, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France etc. are some of the evidences in favour of their cultures.
Neolithic Revolution of Stone Age resulted into the appearance of Bronze Age with development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these practices Bronze Age people further developed metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of their choice.
The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the knowledge of iron smelting technology to lower the cost of living since iron utensils were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period before the development of written scripts.
Educational technology during the period of Ancient civilizations
According to Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational technology can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systematized bodies of knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information. In every stage of human civilization, one can find an instructional technique or set of procedures intended to implement a particular culture which were also supported by number of investigations and evidences. The more advanced the culture, the more complex became the technology of instruction designed to reflect particular ways of individual and social behaviour intended to run an educated society. Over centuries, each significant shift in educational values, goals or objectives led to diverse technologies of instruction.
The greatest advances in technology and engineering came with the rise of the ancient civilizations. These advances stimulated and educated other societies in the world to adopt new ways of living and governance.
The Indus Valley Civilization was an early Bronze Age civilization which was located in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent. The civilization was primarily flourished around the Indus River basin of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the part is under today's Pakistan and the western states of modern-day India as well as some part of the civilization extending upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost part of Balochistan, Iran).
There is a long term controversy to be sure about the language that the Harappan people spoke. It is assumed that their writing was at least seems to be or a pictographic script. The script appears to have had about 400 basic signs, with lots of variations. People write their script with the direction generally from right to left. Most of the writing was found on seals and sealings which were probably used in trade and official & administrative work.
Harappan people had the knowledge of the measuring tools of length, mass, and time. They were the first in the world to develop a system of uniform weights and measures.
In a study carried out by P. N. Rao et al. in 2009, published in Science, computer scientists found that the Indus script's pattern is closer to that of spoken words, which supported the proposed hypothesis that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.
According to the Chinese Civilization, some of the major techno-offerings from China include paper, early seismological detectors, toilet paper, matches, iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the blast furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. With the invent of paper they have given their first step towards developments of educational technology by further culturing different handmade products of paper as means of visual aids.
Ancient Egyptian language was at one point one of the longest surviving and used languages in the world. Their script was made up of pictures of the real things like birds, animals, different tools, etc. These pictures are popularly called hieroglyph. Their language was made up of above 500 hieroglyphs which are known as hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs which were discovered and rescued latter on provides the evidence of existence of many forms of artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.
Educational technology during Medieval and Modern Period
Paper and the pulp papermaking process which was developed in China during the early 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and was spread to Mediterranean by the Muslim conquests. Evidences support that a paper mill was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of spinning wheel increased the productivity of thread making process to a great extent and when Lynn White added the spinning wheel with increasing supply of rags, this led to the production of cheap paper, which was a prime factor in the development of printing technology.
The invention of the printing press was taken place in approximately 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The invention of printing press was a prime developmental factor in the history of educational technology to convey the instruction as per the need of the complex and advanced-technology cultured society.
In the pre-industrial phases, while industry was simply the handwork at artisan level, the instructional processes were relied heavily upon simple things like the slate, the horn book, the blackboard, and chalk. It was limited to a single text book with a few illustrations. Educational technology was considered synonymous to simple aids like charts and pictures.
The year 1873 may be considered a landmark in the early history of technology of education or audio-visual education. An exhibition was held in Vienna at international level in which an American school won the admiration of the educators for the exhibition of maps, charts, textbooks and other equipments.
Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally renowned child educator and the originator of Montessori Method exerted a dynamic impact on educational technology through her development of graded materials designed to provide for the proper sequencing of subject matter for each individual learner. Modern educational technology suggests many extension of Montessori's idea of prepared child centered environment.
In1833, Charles Babbage's design of a general purpose computing device laid the foundation of the modern computer and in 1943, the first computing machine as per hi design was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Assisted instruction (CAI) in which the computer functions essentially as a tutor as well as the Talking Type writer was developed by O.K. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computers are interestingly used in education in schools, colleges and universities.
In the beginning of the 19th century, there were noteworthy changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), right from its start of school broadcasts in 1920 had maintained rapid pace in making sound contribution to formal education. In the USA, by 1952, 20 states had the provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the schools in United Kingdom were equipped with radios and there were regular daily programmes.
Sidney L. Pressey, a psychologist of Ohio state university developed a self-teaching machine called 'Drum Tutor' in 1920. Professor Skinner, however, in his famous article 'Science of Learning and art of Teaching' published in 1945 pleaded for the application of the knowledge derived from behavioral psychology to classroom procedures and suggested automated teaching devices as means of doing so.
Although the first practical use of Regular television broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted through television stations in Berlin, Open circuit television began to be used primarily for broadcasting programmes for entertainment in 1950. Since 1960, television is used for educational purposes.
In 1950, Brynmor, in England, used educational technological steps for the first time. It is to be cared that in 1960, as a result of industrial revolution in America and Russia, other countries also started progressing in the filed of educational technology. In this way, the beginning of educational technology took place in 1960 from America and Russia and now it has reached England, Europe and India.
During the time of around 1950s, new technocracy was turning it attraction to educations when there was a steep shortage of teachers in America and therefore an urgent need of educational technology was felt. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and a little later his associate, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard introduced mass production technology in America.
Team teaching had its origin in America in the mid of 1950's and was first started in the year 1955 at Harvard University as a part of internship plan.
In the year 1956, Benjamin Bloom from USA introduced the taxonomy of educational objectives through his publication, "The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain".
In 1961, Micro teaching technique was first adopted by Dwight W. Allen and his co-workers at Stanford University in USA.
Electronics is the main technology being developed in the beginning of 21st century. Broadband Internet access became popular and occupied almost all the important offices and educational places and even in common places in developed countries with the advantage of connecting home computers with music libraries and mobile phones.
Today's classroom is more likely to be a technology lab, a room with rows of students using internet connected or Wi-Fi enabled laptops, palmtops, notepad, or perhaps students are attending a video conferencing or virtual classroom or may have been listening to a podcast or taking in a video lecture. Rapid technological changes in the field of educational have created new ways to teach and to learn. Technological changes also motivated the teachers to access a variety of information on a global scale via the Internet, to enhance their lessons as well as to make them competent professional in their area of concern. At the same time, students can utilize vast resources of the Internet to enrich their learning experience to cope up with changing trend of the society. Now a days students as well teachers are attending seminars, conferences, workshops at national and international level by using the multimedia techno-resources like PowerPoint and even they pursue a variety of important courses of their choice in distance mode via online learning ways. Online learning facility has opened infinite number of doors of opportunities for today's learner to make their life happier than ever before.

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